- Asphaltene Content – the concentration of asphaltene in a crude oil is defined by precipitation with either n-pentane (C5) or n-heptane (C7).
- Asphaltene onset (ASIST) – The asphaltene-instability-trend (ASIST) allows the determination of the onset of
asphaltene instability to be established with a series of liquid n-alkanes.
- Wax content – The solvent extraction method is commonly used to determine the wax content of oil by weight.
- SARA analysis – The saturates, aromatics, resins and asphaltenes in crude oil can be determined by using
combination of instrumental/wet chemistry methods.
- Pour Point – The pour point of a liquid is the temperature at which it becomes semi solid and loses its flow
characteristics. The test methods for determin pour point of petroleum products and crude oils are developed
based on ASTM D97 and D5853.
- API Gravity – API gravity is a measure of how heavy or light a petroleum liquid is compared to water. The
hydrometer method for determin API gravity is developed based on ASTM D287.
- Viscosity – The viscosity of a fluid is a measure of its resistance to gradual deformation by shear stress or tensile
stress. Viscometer is the commonly used for determine viscosity of the liquid.
- Cloud point/Wax appearance temperature – Cloud point refers to the temperature below which wax in diesel or
biowax in biodiesels form a cloudy appearance. The cloud point/wax appearance temperature method is developed based on ASTM D2500.
- Foaming – The Foam Test measures the foaming tendency of petroleum products. This test method is referred to as ASTM D892.
- Titration – Determination of chloride, total amine number by automatic titration.